First year mechanisms
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Second Year Mechanisms
Displaying 310 mechanisms:
Alicyclic- electrophilic addition of bromine to cyclohexene (bromonium ion opening)
Alicyclic- Grobb rearrangement
Alicyclic- norborane solvolysis- non-classical carbocation
Alicyclic- small rings- alpha-carbocation to three membered ring- rearrangement
Alicyclic- small rings- ring opening
Alicyclic- small rings- ring opening with radical
Alicyclic- trans-decalin epoxide opening
Alicyclic- transannular bromination
Alicyclic- transannular ring closure
Aromatic- add iodine.
Aromatic- Alkylation via organolithium
Aromatic- Benzylic bromination with NBS
Aromatic- Benzynes- Bergman cyclisation (para-benzyne)
Aromatic- Benzynes- Diels-Alder cyclo-addition
Aromatic- Benzynes- Diels-Alder with Furan
Aromatic- Benzynes- formation of alinine from bromobenzene
Aromatic- Benzynes- Preparation from azide
Aromatic- Benzynes- Preparation from halobenzene and strong base
Aromatic- Benzynes- Preparation from lithium exchange
Aromatic- Benzynes- Preparation from triflate with SiMe3 group
Aromatic- Benzynes- Preparation via fragmentation
Aromatic- Benzynes- Preparation via oxidative fragmentation
Aromatic- Birch Reduction to dialkene
Aromatic- Blanc Reaction- addition of CH2Cl to benzene
Aromatic- chromium complex formation
Aromatic- chromium complex reacting with alkoxide
Aromatic- chromium complex reacting with Nuc.
Aromatic- Fischer indole synthesis
Aromatic- Fluorination (using diazonium salt and BF4)
Aromatic- Fluorination by SNAr
Aromatic- Fluorination using "F+"
Aromatic- Fluorination- Bamberger reaction
Aromatic- Formylation by Vilmeir reaction
Aromatic- Formylation using ArLi
Aromatic- Formylation- methyl group to aldehyde
Aromatic- Formylation- Riemer Tiemann reaction
Aromatic- Fridel-Crafts thermodynamic product- three meta substituents
Aromatic- furan diels alder reaction
Aromatic- furan- Nitration using AcONO2
Aromatic- furan- reaction with Br2 in methanol
Aromatic- Heck Reaction- coupling of Csp2 with aromatic system
Aromatic- Iodination via metal-halogen exchange
Aromatic- NArS alkylation to chromium complex
Aromatic- Ortholithiation then react with amide
Aromatic- Ortholithiation to add carboxylic acid group
Aromatic- Phenol electrophilic substitution of halide.
Aromatic- Preparation of phenol from Grignard reagent and O2
Aromatic- Preparation of phenol from H3O+ and O2
Aromatic- Preparation of phenol- Bayer Villiger reaction
Aromatic- Preparation of phenol- Dakin reaction
Aromatic- Preparation of phenol- Friers Rearrangement
Aromatic- Pyridine synthesis (Guareschi)
Aromatic- pyridine synthesis (Paal-Knorr)
Aromatic- pyridine- catalyst for acylation reactions
Aromatic- pyridine- reaction with PCl2
Aromatic- pyridine- removal of oxide from pyrridine-N-oxide
Aromatic- pyridine-N-oxide formation
Aromatic- pyridines- Chichibabin reaction to form amino pyridine
Aromatic- pyridines- electrophilic substitution with pyridine-N-oxide
Aromatic- pyridines- Nitration of pyridone
Aromatic- pyridines- nucleophilic substitution
Aromatic- pyridines- Pyridine-N-oxide- activates electrophilic substitution
Aromatic- pyridines- reaction of halopyridines with nucleophiles
Aromatic- pyridines- reaction of pyridinium salts with nucleophiles
Aromatic- pyridines- reduction of pyridinium salts
Aromatic- Pyrrole synthesis- Hantzsch
Aromatic- Pyrrole synthesis- Knorr
Aromatic- Pyrrole synthesis- Paal Knorr
Aromatic- pyrrole- polymerisation
Aromatic- Pyrrole- porphyrin ring synthesis
Aromatic- pyrrole- Vilsmeier reaction (acylation)
Aromatic- SNAr - addition of hydrzine (NHNH2)
Aromatic- SRN1- addition of enolates etc. to halobenzenes
Aromatic- Skraup synthesis of Quinolines
Aromatic- Stille Reaction- coupling of Csp2 with aromatic system- with control
Aromatic- Suzuki Reaction- coupling of Csp2 with aromatic system using RB(OH)2
Aromatic- Tetrahydroisoquinoline synthesis Pictet Spengler reaction
Aromatic- Vicarious nucloeophilic substitution
Biological chemistry- Enamine chemistry- aldolase type I
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- ATP- activation of alcohols
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- Biotin- Carboxylation
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- CoASH- Acylation
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- NADP- Hydride acceptor
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- NADPH- Hydride donor
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- Pyridoxal- Decarboxylation
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- Pyridoxal- Reductive amination
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- SAM- Methylation
Biological chemistry- Nature's reagents- TPP- Umpolung chemistry
Carbenes- (Carbenoid) Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation
Carbenes- 1,2-shift to form alkene
Carbenes- 1,2-shift to form alkyne
Carbenes- 1,2-shift with 3-membered ring
Carbenes- addition to alkenes- singlet (concerted mechanism)
Carbenes- addition to alkenes- triplet (stepwise mechanism)
Carbenes- Arndt-Ernst to form ester
Carbenes- C-H insertion
Carbenes- C-H insertion to form three-membered ring
Carbenes- carbenoids Rh2(OAc)4 cyclisation
Carbenes- Eschenmoser Fragmentation
Carbenes- ester formation from alcohols
Carbenes- Generation from RNNHTs followed by C-H insertion (9 membered ring)
Carbenes- intramolecular C-H insertion on alkene to form alkyne (three equiv. MeLi)
Carbenes- nucleophilic addition
Carbenes- preparation from acyl chloride and diazomethane
Carbenes- Preparation from bicyclic compound- gives napthalene
Carbenes- Preparation from CCl3H (alpha-elimination)
Carbenes- Preparation from diazo compounds
Carbenes- Preparation from ketenes
Carbenes- preparation from tosyl hydrazines
Carbenes- Preparation of diazo compounds
Carbenes- preparation of diazomethane
Carbenes- reaction of diazomethane with carboxylic acids
Carbenes- reaction with benzene to form cycloheptatriene
Carbenes- reaction with phenol to form aldehyde
Carbenes- reaction with pyrrole to form pyridine
Carbenes- Simmons-Smith reaction
Carbenes- Wolff-rearrangement- add an extra CH2 to a ketone
Cyclisation- carbanion based - diethyl malonate to form small rings
Cyclisation- carbanion based - sulphur stabilised anions to form rings
Cyclisation- carbanion based - Thorpe-Zeigler reaction
Cyclisation- carbanion based- Dieckmann cyclisation
Cyclisation- carbanion based- intramolecular aldol
Cyclisation- carbanion based- Micheal addition followed by internal Aldol
Cyclisation- carbanion based- using sulphones to form rings
Cyclisation- carbanion based- using sulphur ylids to form rings
Cyclisation- carbocation cyclisation
Cyclisation- radical based - Hoffmann-Loeffter-Freytag reaction
Cyclisation- radical cyclisation
Cyclisation- ring closure of Homoallyl cations
Free radicals- Acyloin reaction to form 1,2-diketones
Free Radicals- allylic bromination
Free Radicals- B-scission with SnBu3 free radical.
Free Radicals- C-C formation using SnBu3H and R-Br
Free Radicals- electrophilic radicals and addition of vinyl ether
Free radicals- halogenation of alkanes
Free Radicals- Homolysis of AIBN- Free radical generation
Free Radicals- Homolysis to form Ph radical
Free Radicals- Hunsdiecker- formation of organohalides from silver carboxylic acid salts
Free Radicals- Kolbe synthesis to form alkanes from carboxylic acids
Free radicals- McMurry reaction- alkenes from ketones
Free radicals- Pinacol coupling
Free Radicals- Radical substitution of Br by H
Free Radicals- Use of CCl3Br to form C-C bonds
Ketenes- dimerisation
Ketenes- Preparation during ester formation using acyl chloride
Ketenes- Preparation from beta-chloro acyl chloride and Zn
Ketenes- Preparation from cyclic di-ester
Ketenes- Preparation from Wolff-Rearrangement
Ketenes- reaction with nucleophile
Ketenes- [2+2] cylco-addtions (to ketone/alkene)
Ketenes- [2,2] Cycloaddition- antarifacial, suprafacial molecular overlap
Materials chemistry- Metathesis to form polymer
Materials chemistry- Ring-opening-metathesis-polymerisation (ROMP)
Nitrenes- 1,2-shift rearrangement
Nitrenes- addition to alkenes
Nitrenes- addition to C-H bonds (insertion)
Nitrenes- Hoffman rearrangement to form amine from amide
Nitrenes- Preparation by oxidation of R-NH2
Nitrenes- Preparation by reduction of R-NO2
Nitrenes- Preparation from alpha-elimination
Nitrenes- Preparation from azides (also organohalides)
Nitrenes- rearrangement concerted with formation
Organoboranes- Carbonylation
Organoboranes- Conversion to alcohol
Organoboranes- Conversion to amines
Organoboranes- Conversion to hydrogen
Organoboranes- Conversion to organohalide
Organoboranes- Formation of dialkoxyallylboranes
Organoboranes- formation of Z-alkene from alkyne (R2BH, then NaOH and I2)
Organoboranes- Preparation from alkenes
Organoboranes- Reaction of allyl-borane with aldehyde
Organoboranes- Reaction with alpha-haloesters (Darzens style reaction)
Phosphorous- alkynes from acyloin reaction
Phosphorous- Barton alkene synthesis
Phosphorous- deoxygenation of ozonolysis product
Phosphorous- epoxide to form trans ring alkene (cyclo-octene)
Phosphorous- Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction
Phosphorous- hydrolysis of phosphonium salts to form phosphine oxides
Phosphorous- Perkow reaction
Phosphorous- Schlosser modification of Wittig reaction to give E-alkene
Phosphorous- sulphur epoxide analogue opening
Phosphorous- Wittig reaction to form alkyne
Phosphorous- Wittig with ester
Phosphorous- Wittig- intramolecular
Phosphorous- [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to form P-C bond
Phosphorus- Arbuzov reaction
Phosphorus- Mitsonobu reaction- activation of alcohol
Phosphorus- tandem Staudinger-Wittig
Phosphorus- Wittig reaction (kinetic control)
Reactive intermediates- Bis cycloheptene with with OTs leaving group
Rearrangements - Arndt Eistert
Rearrangements - Bayer-Villiger
Rearrangements - Bayer-Villiger (effects of stereochemistry)
Rearrangements - Beckmann
Rearrangements - Benzylic acid
Rearrangements - Dienone-phenol
Rearrangements - Favorskii Rearrangement (Carbanion)
Rearrangements - Stevens rearrangement
Rearrangements- Addition of DBr to bicyclic alkene
Rearrangements- amines from acyl chlorides- Curtius rearrangement
Rearrangements- Beckmann fragmentation (of oxime)
Rearrangements- Benzidine rearrangement- (hydrazobenzine to benzidine)
Rearrangements- Bicyclic epoxide to aldehyde
Rearrangements- Eschenmoser Fragmentation
Rearrangements- Methyl shifts in turpenes- Nametkin rearrangement
Rearrangements- Multiple Wagner-Meerwein shift
Rearrangements- Neber rearrangement (Beckmann in the presence of base to form amine)
Rearrangements- Payne Rearrangement hydroxy group alpha to epoxide
Rearrangements- Pinacol
Rearrangements- Pinacol with epoxide
Rearrangements- Ramberg Backland Rearrangement
Rearrangements- Ring expansion
Rearrangements- Schmidt reaction (HN3, ketone and acid)
Rearrangements- Semipinacol Rearrangement
Rearrangements- Shapiro reaction
Rearrangements- t-butyl group next to electrophilic centre
Rearrangements- Wagner-Meerwein
Rearrangements- Wittig Rearrangement- ether to alcohol
Redox- Oxidation- alcohol to ketone using CrO3
Redox- Oxidation- alcohol to aldehyde (DCC)- Pfitzner-Moffatt oxidation
Redox- Oxidation- alcohol to carbonyl- bromine water
Redox- Oxidation- alcohol to carbonyl- Dess Martin
Redox- Oxidation- alcohol to carbonyl- Oppenauer
Redox- Oxidation- alcohol to carbonyl- Swern Oxidation
Redox- Oxidation- Aldehyde to carboxylic acid using CrO3
Redox- Oxidation- alkene using Pb(OAc)4
Redox- Oxidation- alkenes to ketones (Wacker)
Redox- Oxidation- alkenes using SeO2 to form allylic alcohol
Redox- Oxidation- autoxidation using O2
Redox- Oxidation- formation of PCC (CrO3 equivalent)
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of alkene to alcohol and amine using osmium compund
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of alkene to alcohol and amine using Sharpless method
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of alkene to allylic alcohol using CrO3
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of alkene to diol using OsO4
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acid to aldehyde
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of cyclohexene to cyclopentane aldehyde uisng thallium
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of diol to dialdehyde using NaIO4
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of diol using Pb(OAc)4
Redox- Oxidation- oxidation of phenol using Fe(III)
Redox- Oxidation- reaction of diol with CrO3
Redox- Oxidation- SeO2 oxidation of ketone
Redox- Reduction- Birch reduction of benzene
Redox- Reduction- Birch reduction- with carbonyl functional group
Redox- Reduction- Diborane reduction of carboxylic acids/amides
Redox- Reduction- Evans- beta hydroxy-ketone to 1,3-diol
Redox- Reduction- metal ammonia reduction of alpha-beta unsaturated ketone (trans-decalin)
Redox- Reduction- methylation of amines using formaldehyde and formic acid (Eschweiler-Clark)
Redox- Reduction- Red-Al? reduction of alkyne
Redox- Reduction- reduction of ester to ketone using DIBAL-H
Redox- Reduction- reduction of ketone- Meerwein-Pondorf-Verley reaction
Ring synthesis- 1,3-dipole ring synthesis
Ring synthesis- Diels Alder reaction
Ring synthesis- Diels Alder to form five membered ring
Ring synthesis- ring expansion- Demjanov reaction
Ring synthesis- ring expansion- Schmidtt reaction
Silicon- Acyloin ring synthesis
Silicon- Allyl silanes- formation
Silicon- Allyl silanes- reaction with acetals
Silicon- Allyl silanes- reaction with acyl chloride
Silicon- Allyl silanes- reaction with electrophiles
Silicon- Allyl silanes- reaction with t-butyl-chloride
Silicon- Baeyer Villiger rearrangement
Silicon- formation of masked enolates
Silicon- Paterson reaction to form alkenes from silyl stabilised carbanions
Silicon- Paterson reaction- homologation of aldehydes
Silicon- Reaction of masked enolate with electrophile
Silicon- TMS as alcohol protecting group
Silicon- TMS removal to give alcohol
Silicon- Vinyl silanes- formation of cis vinyl silanes
Silicon- Vinyl silanes- formation of trans vinyl silanes
Silicon- Vinyl silanes- reaction with electrophiles
Singlet Oxygen- Diels Alder type reaction with diene
Singlet Oxygen- Ene reaction
Singlet Oxygen- Preparation from dioxygen bridged napthalene
Singlet Oxygen- Preparation from photosensitiser
Singlet Oxygen- [2,2] cylcoaddition to alkene
Spectroscopy- IR
Spectroscopy- Mass spectrometry- Common fragmentations
Spectroscopy- NMR
Sulphur- Corey-Winter reaction- diol to alkene
Sulphur- disulphides - reaction with sulphuryl chloride (SO2Cl2)
Sulphur- oxidation of sulphide to sulphoxide using NaIO4
Sulphur- Pummerer allylation
Sulphur- sulphide- hydrogenation with Raney Nickel
Sulphur- sulphides- formation of three membered rings from allyl sulphide and michael acceptor
Sulphur- sulphides- Pummerer reaction to form chlorosulphides
Sulphur- sulphides- reaction of allyl sulphide with electrophile
Sulphur- sulphides- reaction of beta-stabilised carbocation to form alkene
Sulphur- sulphides- Swern oxidation- alcohol to aldehyde
Sulphur- sulphones - stabilised anion as nucleophile
Sulphur- sulphones- Julia Olefin synthesis
Sulphur- sulphonium saltes- preparation from sulphide and MeI
Sulphur- sulphonium salts- intramolecular reaction with electrophile
Sulphur- sulphonium ylids- epoxides from sulphonium ylids
Sulphur- sulphoxide- ylid to cyclise (ninhydrin formation)
Sulphur- sulphoxide- ylid with sigmatropic rearrangement
Sulphur- sulphoxide- [2,3] sigma-tropic shift
Sulphur- sulphoxides- allylic sulphoxide rearrangement to sulphenate ester
Sulphur- sulphoxides- elimination
Sulphur- sulphoxides- Pummerer reaction
Sulphur- sulphoxides- Pummerer reaction- electrophilic aromatic substitution
Sulphur- sulponium ylids- (stabilised) conjugate addition
Sulphur- thioacetal- ketone fragmentation
Sulphur- thioacetals- formation from formaldehyde
Sulphur- thioacetals- hydrolysis using HgCl2
Sulphur- thioacetals- hydrolysis via methylation
Sulphur- thioacetals- hydrolysis via oxidation
Sulphur- thiol chlorides - electrophilic addition to alkene
Sulphur- thiol- acting as nucleophile
Sulphur- TsCl as nucloeophile- reaction with Zn